An ideal place, the domain, in which there is no worry, there is no pain, there is no anxiety. There is no fear of revenue or taxation recovery. There is no need to fear anything or to feel guilty or to pray for compassion or a decline (of values). I have found such a nice place where all is well, my brother. (Pause)
Urvaar paar ke daniya likh lehu aal pataal
Mohi jam dand na lagyee tajilai sarab janjal.
Write anything about ‘here and hereafter’ but I am not subject to any retribution and I have rejected all dogmas.
One’s life cannot be separated from ones environment, family life and social conditions. Contemporary scene does influence the way of life of an individual. When we think of this in the context of Bhagat Ravidas’s life, we find that his family life and the contemporary situation greatly affect his personality. Dr. Hazarika Prasad Dwivedi 3 (3. Dr. Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Sahitya Sehchar, p. 9) lays emphasis on four points to study the life of a writer – when he was born, which caste he belonged to, who were his contemporary writers or those close to him, the kind of personal life he led? Different views are held by authoritative personages, especially those who have studied the Sant Mat (Saintly tradition) deeply. While Ram Chandra Shukla (4. Ram Chandra Shukla, Hindi Sahitya ka Itihas.) thinks that he came on the scene long after Kabir and considers him older than Kabir. Dr. Triloki Narain Dixit, Dr. Joginder Singh, Prithvi Singh Azad, Dr. D.P. Sharma, Dr. Chandra Rai, Bhagwat Vrat Mishra, Ram Kumar Verma, Hindi Vishva Kosh, Mahaan Kosh, etc. hold different opinions from one another. 5 (5. Dr. Hazari Prasad Dwivedi) In the absence of authoritative documents and the lack of any evidence in Ravidas Bani in this regard, there is no possibility of finding an authentic record of a person born about six centuries ago in a poor family of low caste. During my visit to Varanasi and going to the supposed places of his birth, like Mandwadih and Seer Govardhan, no solid proof could be found in this direction. 6 (6. A visit to Madvadih (Manduachhih) near Banaras Hindu University and Siargovardhan outside the city could not provide any proof.) Of course the Gurus and Bhagat Ravidas himself mention their contemporaries or those who had been before him and from this it is possible to infer his lifetime to some extent, like:
Ravidas chamar ustat karai Hari Kirat nimakh ik gaye (SGGS, 733)
Ravidas chamar (the cobbler) sings His praises….
Kabir dhiaeyo eik rang. Namdev Har jio basesh sang.
Ravidas dhiaye Prabhu anoop. Guru Nanak Dev Govind roop. (1192)
Kabir dwells on His Name in full concentration. Namdev is ever close to Him. Ravidas meditates on God, beyond description and Guru Nanak has become one with Him.
Ravidas dhuvanta dhor neet tin tyagi maya.
Pargat hoeya sadhu sang Hari darsan paiya.
Ravidas carried dead cattle routinely but he had given up worldly illusions.
He had, in the company of the righteous and holy ones, attained God.
Gun gavai Ravidas, Jai Deva Trilochan.
Ravi Das, Jai Deva and Trilochan sing His praises.
It is a commonly held view that the sources of the great rivers and the birth of great persons always become subjects of controversy. Guru Nanak’s date of birth has been a matter of discussion. Not just the time of his birth, even Bhagat Ravidas’s date of death is not known for certain even though he was very well known in all the four directions when he breathed his last. Bhai Gurdas writes about Ravi Das:
Bhagat bhagat jag wajya, chahun chakkan vich chamreta (10)
Bhagat Ravidas, though a chamar, was very well know in all the four directions.
It is clear from the evidence (found in his hymns) how well known had he become. If a particular date is decided upon as in the case of other writers, it would just be a needless exercise. His hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib; the hymns are without any controversy and duly acceptable as true and holy words about which there is absolutely no doubt. It can simply be said that this divine personage lived in the fourteenth-fifteenth century and he was born near Benaras in a family of chamars. His parents were engaged in the family vocation of carrying dead animals and skinning them, as he says himself:
Meri jati kul bandhla dhor dhuvanta
niteh Banarasi aasa paasa (SGGS, 1293)
People in our lineage carried dead animals around Benaras.
Thus this darling of mother Karma and father Raghu, though born in a so-called low class of society, became free of the consideration of high and low because of singing the praises of the Lord. He declares:
Nagar jana, meri jati bikhyat chamarang
Riday Ram Gobind gun sarang. (SGGS, 1293)
O citizens, my chamar caste is well known as I always bear in mind the greatness of the Great Lord, the Sustainer.
Kahi Ravidas jo japai Naam.
Tis jati na janam na jone kaam. (SGGS, 1196)
Sayeth Ravidas, one who recites His Name, has nothing to do with caste, birth or lineage.
It is necessary to have a brief discussion about his Guru Bhagatmal and the Janamsakhi traditions. Many critics accept Rama Nand as his Guru. Traditional thinking accepts that he was regarded as one of the leading disciples of Sant Rama Nand. It was Parshu Ram Chaturvedi who, for the first time, refused to accept Rama Nand as his Guru. 7 (7. Parshu Ram Chaturvedi, Sant Kavya, p.10) Mcleod, Triloki Narain Dixit and many others also hold the same view. There is a mention of his contemporaries and those who had been before him in Ravidas Bani more than once. Had Rama Nand really been his Guru, Bhagat Ravidas would not have hesitated even a little bit to refer to this. Gurbani denounces one who does not reveal his Guru, like:
Tan man arpau, pooj charavau.
Gur Prasad niranjan pavau. (SGGS, 525)
I sacrifice myself and worship my Guru
With whose grace I attain the Lord.
Param paras Gur bhetiyai, poorab likhat lilat
Unman man hi milai, chhutkat bajar kapaat.
Coming in contact with my revered Guru
As preordained for me even before my birth
I see the hard stone doors opening before me
Letting me have a glimpse of the Lord.
8. Hari ke Naam Kabir ujagar. Janam Janam ke katai kagar.
Nimat Namdeo doodh piyeya. Tau jag janam sankat nahi aiya. (p. 487)
9. Jin Gur gopya aapna tis thaur na thau.
Halat palat dovai dargah nahin thao. (314)
It is quite clear from the internal evidence of Gurbani that Bhagat Ravi Das did not have a physical Guru and for him his Guru was God Almighty. In the entire Ravidas Bani, we find the emphasis on dwelling on His Name, reciting His Name and singing His praises, and it can be said with certainty that his Guru was the Word (Shabad Guru). These words of Dr. Mohan Singh Diwana about Kabir, apply equally to bhagat Ravidas that ‘Kabir did not make any one his Guru, and the Guru found in his writings is only the Word Guru-Brahm.’ 10 (10. Dr. Mohan Singh Diwana, Kabir, His Biography, p. 22) In this way it can be said that bhagat Ravi Das was a renowned guiding spirit of the Bhagati Tradition of medieval times.
His forty hymns composed in sixteen ragas (musical notes) are part of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. He was a nirguna saint, who aimed at complete devotion to God and attainment of God through recitation of His Name. This devotion to God is mentioned in his verses time and again. It is but natural that spiritual points dominate these verses, but many social, religious, economic and political aspects find a place incidentally. Omnipotent, All-Pervading God, Oneness of Soul with the Supersoul, God’s Grace, taking shelter in God and eagerness for a glimpse of the Lord, greatness of the true guide (Satguru), the importance of His Name, the need for reciting His Name, supremacy of the human birth, the role of the body and the mind, salvation and transmigration, importance of the company of the righteous, the all-pervasive effect of maya (illusion), the dance-drama of evil deeds, the condemnation of rituals which lead one astray and the need for humility are all emphasized in the Baani. Every point is worthy of becoming an independent research paper. I have tried to keep myself, in view of the short space of time at my disposal, confined to the main point – the Brahm Saroop (Divine Form) of Bhagat Ravidas.
Brahm Saroop (Divine Form)
Philosophers, thinkers, learned men, sages, etc. keep on trying to know, understand, seek, search and explain Brahm. There is also a great tendency to use different names to address Him. ‘Ewad oocha hovai koye, tis oochai ko janai soye’ (One has to be as high as Him to know Him) – it is not so easy to known the Highest Truth but after getting free of worldly attachments and becoming one with Him gives an experience which is rewarding but at the same time beyond description. Therefore Bhagat Ravidas, talking in all humility, says –
Kahi Ravidas akath katha bahu kaiye karijai.
Jaisa too taisa tuhi kya upma deejay.
Sayeth Ravidas, it is not possible to describe Him Howsoever hard one may try to do. He is as He is and no one can be said to be like Him.
And: Kabir saat samunai masu karau qalam karau banraiye.
Basudha kagad jau karau, Hari jas likhan na jaiye. (1368)
Sayeth Kabir, if all the seven seas are turned into ink and al the forests are turned into pens and the entire earth is made into paper, even then it would not be possible to write about His greatness.
This is a personal experience abut which Dr. Darshan Singh writes about (The Gurus’ concept of Brahm is based on their own experiences and not based on some experimental device). 11 (11. Dr. Darshan Singh, Indian Bhakti Traditions and the Sikh Gurus, p. 49.) Because of the difference of experience, mystic and philosophical theories come into existence. A study of Indian history in this regard clearly shows that right from the Vedic period and up to the time of the Indian acharyas of the south, numerous theories have been advanced about the Super Power. Sometimes the worship of many gods was advocated, and at other times only the concept of Formless God was stated to be true. However the unity of Brahm has been accepted by all. God is the Creator and Sustainer. As He is formless, there is no specific description of His Form. The centre point of Baani is Brahm only. The ways to attain Him, the need for devotion to Him, the keen desire to attain His Grace, the yearning for a glimpse of Him, His compassion, His kindness, etc. do find a place here and there in his hymns. About other means, like the saints, he explains in thirty four letters in these words:
Nana khyan puraan beid bidhi choutis akhar manhi.
Biyas bichar rahyo parmarath Ram naam sar nahin. (SGGS, 658)
Many ideas and means have been described in thirty four letters even in the Vedas and the Puranas but none equals His Name. All the miracles and occult powers fail to attain Him:
Jogisar pavai nahin tua gun kathan apaar.
Prem bhagati ke karnai khai Ravidas chamar.
Even those who are doing hard penance and yogic exercises to attain Him do not meet with success as His greatness is beyond anyone’s comprehension but Ravidas says that only love and devotion help (to attain him).
Formless having Attributes (Brahm) or Brahm with Forms?
Describing the elements of spiritualism, Ranade has discussed formlessness or the personal form of God. 12 (12.Ranade, The Bhagavadgita is a Philosophy of God Realization, p. 160) Darshan Singh is also of the view that in all religious books, the Supreme Power has been described in two forms. In fact those are the different forms of reality that He is. In this context the view held by Dr. Radhakrishnan is worth noting: ‘The description of the Greatest Truth is done in two ways (formlessness and of form). When we lay emphasis on the form of the Reality we attain the unattainable and limitless Brahm and when we lay emphasis on our own relationships, we attain the Being with form.’ 13 (13. S. Radhakrishnan, An Idealist View of Life, p. 31.)
In other words, when a devotee establishes his personal relationship with Him and considers Him as having a form and then engages in His devotion, he is a devotee of the Divine Form but as he thinks of His form only, it becomes the description of the Formless. The concept of godly form has been in existence from ancient times. Sometimes His form became so very dominant that his real form (Formlessness) got hidden behind the concept of form. The worship of many gods was the result of this.
In Hindi literature, according to Dr. Mohan Singh Diwana 14 (14. Dr. Mohan Singh Diwana, Jatinder Sahit Sarovar, p. 3) a period is known as Bhagti Kaal (period of devotion) (from 1375 to 1700 BS) and the subdivision of this period is the poetry about the Formless God and about many gods in many forms (physical). A noted scholar of Hindi literature, Jai Prakash Mishra 15 (15. Jai Ram Mishra, Sri Guru Granth Darshan, p. 75) has discussed both forms nirguna and sarguna under sub-heads. In Sardool Singh Kavishar’s 16 (16. Sardool Singh Kavishar, Sikh Dharam Darshan) words ‘Being Omnipresent, He is of Form and being Infinite, He is Formless, beyond the reach of our senses (In the midst of all and beyond the reach of all – sabh kai madh sabhun te bahar). It can be said in this way that although the concept of Formlessness and having Form has been there throughout the ages, the experience of Formlessness had been had in the real sense only during the time of Bhagtas and Saints.’ 17 (17. Dr. Ratan Singh Jagi) Analyzing the views about Kabir, Dr. Dwivedi writes ‘He is beyond the measure of any philosophy, above the level of logic, beyond book knowledge but can be attained through Love. 18 (18 Dr. Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kabir, p.126-127) He is ‘experienced’ and has attained a state of equipoise. This concept of Kabir’s applies to Ravidas Baani also. It is evident from a deep study of this that the Brahm of Bhagat Ravidas’s concept is Formless with all His attributes. Although Ravidas’ Brahm is beyond all the three attributes (rajo, tamo, sato), because of attributes, being Formless, He is Formless with attributes, as:
Bhagat jugat mati sat kari bhram bandhan kaat bikaar.
Soyee bas ras man milai gun nirgun eik bichaar.
(346) Mind has been moulded into truth by devotional love and all doubts have been removed. He is One and Only One, though Formless or having attributes.
Besides the use of the words ‘Gun-nirgun’ (with attribute and attribute-less, some other references are also found which clearly show that the idea is to become one with the Attributeless Being. This further clarifies the state of Sagun-nirakar (The attribute-less but with attributes). Sometimes they experience so much closeness to the Supersoul that they appear to be visualizing Him through His attributes as:
Hau bal bal jayo Ramaiya karnai.
Karan kavan abol. (694)
I sacrifice myself unto Him,
But why this silence?
Aisi lal tujh bin kaun karai
Gharibnivaz gussaiyan mera
Mathey chhatar dhareh. (1109)
Who can do so, my Lord?
The helper of the poor, my Master, has
The royal umbrella opened over my head.
Jau pe ham na paap karanta ahey ananta.
Patit pavan naam kaise hunta? (93)
Had I not been a sinner all along
How could He be called the forgiver
Who could uplift the down-trodden.
Hamsar deen dayal na tum sar,
ab patiar kya kijay (694)
None is as humble as myself
And as the Benefactor of the
Downtrodden as Thyself
What more proof is needed?
It is thus very clear from adjectives like ‘the uplifter of the downtrodden’, ‘the benefactor of the poor’ and ‘the patron of the humble’ that despite the visible world being a manifestation of God, it is not as it should be. The Benefactor, the Uplifter, the Kind, the Messiah of the poor, the Renderer of the account and the Tenderer of the account are different existences. It can be said that in the context of world and the creatures, He is full of all virtues. Therefore, in the context of this Bani, it would not be inappropriate to call him The Formless with attributes.
In accordance with ‘Aprapar ka nao anant’ (One Who is in accessible is infinite) to address God by various names has been part of the spiritual tradition for ages. In the Bani under discussion, Hari, Madhava, Murari, Mukand, Upkari, Paras, Karta, Sukhsagar, Gobind, Anant, Niranjan, Satnaam, Prabhu, Narayan, Raghunath, Raja Ram, Ram, Raja Ram Chand, Ramaiyya, bajigar (acrobat), anoop suami (Unique Master), Raja (King), Nayak (Hero), Antarjami (Mind reader) Nath (Master), Pran Nath (Master of breath, life), Thakur (Worthy of worship, Chief), Bhavakhandan (Who can destroy the cycle of births), Gusaiyyan (Master), Kavlapati, etc. are different names by which God is remembered. This use of different names shows that during medieval times all the names in use from Hindu and Muslim traditions were so used, irrespective of their word-meaning, only to address Almighty God, the Highest of the High. Kavishar’s views in this regard are very important that some scholars did reach the mistaken conclusion that Ravidas believed in gods and incarnations but this Bani is opposed to the worship of many gods, idol worship, etc. The infiniteness of God and His Omnipresence not being confined to any limits is explained by Ravidas from his own point of view, though in no uncertain terms. The views expressed in the entire Ravidasbani go to clearly show that his Brahm is Onkar also and Satnam-Karta Purakh too; nirvair and nirbhau as also akaal moorat, ajooni, omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient, kind and above the impact of maya, unique and without match, the rescuer of those fallen and infinite.
The initial word of Japuji is Onkar, which while being the basic pivot of Gurmat thought process, has been indicative of Brahm from Vedic times. Not only in the Hindu religion but in Islam and Gurmat, other previous faiths, cults and philosophies the form of Onkar has been indisputably accepted as the form of God. Guruji says:
Onkar eiko rav rehya sabh eikas mahi samavaigo. (1310)
The One God is All-Pervading and everything ultimately mingles with Him.
“Guru Nanak, by prefixing ‘1’ to Onkar has determined His form because different views had been held to use this word for Brahm in the tradition of Upanishads.’ (21). According to Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, by prefixing ‘1’ to Onkar, it has been determined that God is One.
Thus the form of Onkar has become clearer and there is no scope for any doubt. In Ravidasbani also emphasis is laid on the ‘Oneness’ of God. While saying, ‘Eik noor te sabh jag upjya, kaun bhale so mandey’ (As the entire universe has come into being from the One light, who can be said to be good or bad?) Kabir says:
Hindu Turk duhoon mahi eiko kahai Kabir pukari. (483)
Says Kabir emphatically that One (Almighty) abides in Hindus and Muslims.
Kehat Kabir sunahu nar narvai parhu eik ki saran. (13)
Sayeth Kabir, listen to me O human beings,
Seek shelter only in the One’s protection.
The Bani under discussion also reiterates this:
Sarbai eik anekai suami sabh ghat bhugvai soyee.
Kahi Ravidas haath pai nerai
sehajai hoyeso hoyee. (658)
The One Master abides in all, in countless forms
Sayeth Ravidas, He is so close to us as our own
Hand; realize his presence in a state of equipoise.
Kahi Ravidas sabhai jag lootya.
Ham tau Ram Nam kehi chootya. (794)
Sayeth Ravidas the entire world has been plundered.
I have escaped this plunder, by reciting His Name.
The following lines leave nothing to doubt at all:
Hari jap teyoo jana padam kavlas pati
Tas sam tul nahi aan koyoo.
Eik hi eik anek hoye bistharyo
Aan rey aan bharpoor jio. (1293)
Even gods like Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva cannot
Equal the lotus feet of the one who recites His Name
The same God pervades everywhere in different forms.
Sat-naam: The meaning of Satnaam is eternal ‘Parabrahm’. The mantra to be recited is ‘Sat’, ‘Naam’ is ‘definitive’ like ‘Harinaam’, ‘Ramnaam’, etc. In this way the word ‘Sat’ denotes Timeless God. (23) In this bani ‘Satnaam’ is indicative of God who cannot be attained by the ritual of ‘aarti’. To attain Him all the concomitants of rituals of aarti, like a stone for grinding sandalwood, saffron, water, lamp, wick, oil, thread, flower-garlands, etc. are not needed. ‘Satnaam’ word is the integral part of Mool Mantra and Bhagat Ravidas had said this word even before Guru Nanak Dev.
Karta: The Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of the entire universe is God Himself. The entire world is under His control (command). It is the only He who can changes the inevitable into evitable and evitable into inevitable.
Nadia vich tibai dekhaley thali karai asgah.
Kira thaap deye patshahi, lashkar kareh suah.
He can create dunes in the rivers, and flood in deserts.
He can make an insect a ruler,
And destroy to ashes mighty forces.
Too aapai karta tera kiya sabh hoye.
Tudh bin dooja avar na koye. (12)
Thou art the Doer, everything is done by Thee.
No one is without Thee (Thy will), O Lord.
The ‘karta’ in Japuji Sahib is also the ‘karta’ of Ravidasbani, which means the same Creator. This Creator sometimes becomes an acrobat also:
Man ka subhao sabh koyee karai.
Karta hoye so anbhai rahai. (1167)
Every one is conditioned by one’s nature
Except God Almighty who has to fear none.
Kahe Ravidas baji jag bhayee.
Bajigar sau muhe preet ban aiyee (487)
This world is the arena for acrobatics
I live in amity with the great Acrobat
According to Sankaracharya, the Paramasata (Supreme Power) cannot be the Creator, being purely attributeless. According to his philosophy, when everything is His form and He alone, then what is He the creator of? This dry philosophy being beyond the grasp of the common people, had to be simplified by the Gurus and Bhagats. Bhagat Ravidas says that after creating the universe, God caters to the need of the creation:
Jin jio diya su rizak ambravai.
Sabh ghat bhitar haat chalavai. (794)
One who creates life, provides food also
Ever abiding within everyone.
When Ravidas accepts Him as father and mother, even then He is highlighted as the Creator: Soyee mukund mukti ka data.
Soyee mukund hamara pit mata. (875)
The bestower of salvation, the savior
Is my father and mother also.
It is also very clear that before the writing of Mool Mantra the word ‘karta’ had figured in Ravidasbani.
God alone is ‘bhayatit’ (without fear). Naturally only an Omnipotent one can be without fear. Guruji says:
Nanak nirbhau nirankar hore ketai raam rawaal.
Nanak, only Formless God is without fear,
All others, incarnations like Rama, etc. are like dust.
Bhagat Ravidas says: Man ka subhao sabh koyee karai
Karta hoye so anbhai rahai (1167)
Jaki chhot jagat kau lagai ta par tuhi dharai.
Nichahu ooch karai mera gobind, kahu te na darai. (1106)
My Lord uplifts the down-trodden, fearing none;
Even those regarded by the world as untouchables.
The hymn ‘Begampura’ is an elaboration of the word ‘Fearless’:
Begampura sehar kau nao. Dookh andoh nahi tiha thao
Na taswish khiraj na maal. Khauf na khata na taras javal. (345)
In Begampura (the realm of fearlessness) there is no cause for worry, sorrow or hardship. There is no taxation or fines, fear or guilt, nor is need for mercy, and no decline.
It is quite evident that the Master of the Realm of Fearlessness does not have to fear any one. His fearlessness has also been covertly described by saying ‘Bhagat jan haran’.
Nirvair: Ravidasbani says:
Aapan bapai nahi kisi ko bhaavan ko Hari raja.
Moh patal sabh jagat byapyo bhagat nahi santapa. (368)
All are equal before him; and there is no discrimination.
One who loves him is made His own by Him. The entire world is under the spell of attachment except the saints.
The absence of discrimination by being second and third in Begampura only means that in the God’s realm everyone is equal and not inimical to anyone.
One who is constant in the beginning, in the middle and at the end is Timeless. Everything else is subject to time (age). All worldly rules are false, only His rule is stable as stated by Bhagatji:
Qayam dayamm sada patshahi
dome na some eik ho aahi. (SGGS, 345)
When Bhagat Ravidas talks of the colours, fast (majith – rubia munjista) and pale (kasumbha – carthamus tinctorius), derived from these flowers, he actually refers to the constant Almighty God, like:
Jaisa rang kasumbh ka taisa ehu sansar.
Merai Ramaiyai rang majith ka
kahu Ravidas chamar. (346)
Bhavakhandna and ajooni means that He cuts the cycle of births and He Himself is not born of the womb, as all the other creatures. Kabir makes it clear:
Sankat nahi parreh jon nahi avai
naam niranjan ja ko rey.
Kabir ko suami aiso Thakur
Ja kau mayee na bapo rey. (338)
He does not have to undergo the
Hardship of suffering in the womb
Whose Name is Niranjan
Unaffected by the soot of maya
Kabir’s Master is such a One
As has no father or mother.
We find very clear references in Ravidasbani to the effect that those who get one with Him, those who meditate on His Name, recite His Name and follow the path of righteousness certainly attain salvation and do not have to undergo the suffering of births and deaths again and again.
Too janat mai kachhu nahi bhavakhandan Ram
Sagal jia sarnagati prabhu pooran kam. (858)
O destroyer of the cycle of births, you know all, not I
Everyone is under your care, and you fulfill all needs.
In the above lines, Brahm has not yet been analytically discussed. In fact He or His reality, are above description. It is just an attempt on the part of his devotees. His Brahm form can be discussed only in his forms being omnipresent, omnipotent, omniscient, kind, unique, above the impact of maya, most beautiful, uplifter of the fallen, infinite and manifest. He delights in looking at his creation. When Ravidas challenges the great benefactor of this world and beyond to write something, he only describes His manifest form. It can be said in a nutshell in Guru Nanak’s words:
Terai gun bahutai mai eik na janya
Mai moorakh kichh deejay. (596)
Your virtues are many but
I, the fool, have not known even one.
Bestow some wisdom on me, O Lord.
Like Guru Nanak Bhagat Ravidas expressed his inability and says that His tale is unrelatable. If Bhagat Ravidas feels this way, a mere thinker like me is too shallow and inadequate. Thus, the Brahm form created through spiritual experience is a fine example of his attunement and being one with Him.
8. Hari ke Naam Kabir ujagar. Janam Janam ke katai kagar.
Nimat Namdeo doodh piyeya. Tau jag janam sankat nahi aiya. (p. 487)
9. Jin Gur gopya aapna tis thaur na thau.
Halat palat dovai dargah nahin thao. (314)